AN ENVIROLYTE ANOLYTE MACHINE MODEL ELA 3000
WHAT IS ANOLYTE?
- is an effective biocide for disinfecting water, food, air and surfaces and because of the metastable compounds of chlorine and oxygen, is significantly more effective than sodium/calcium hypochlorite. Anolyte is capable of destroying all known bacteria in water.
WHAT IS CATHOLYTE?
Catholyte is a alkaline solution produced as a bi-product of the Electro Chemical Activation Process (ECA Process). Refer to ECA Process below. Its an efficient washing solutions and can be used to balance the pH of water being treated. Catholyte contains 99.3% Water, 0.413% NaCl, 0.14% NaOH, and 0.0735% H2O2‾, has a pH 11–13 and ORP ~ -800 to -900.
THE ECA TECHNOLOGY
ECA Process (Electro-Chemical Activation Process) where electric current is used to produce a chemical change in the ECA cells. The key innovations are the interposition of an ion-permeable membrane between the positive and negative electrodes and the design of and materials used for the electrodes. (Please refer to diagram on left).
Oxidation occurs at the positive anode, where negatively charged anions give up electrons.
Reduction occurs at the negative cathode, where electrons are emitted and react with positively charged cations in the solution.
The membrane allows the removal of solutions from each electrode separately – Anolyte from the anode and Catholyte from the cathode.
Anolyte contains 0.05% hypochlorous acid / hypochlorite, 0.26% sodium chloride and 99.69% water. Most importantly it also contains small amounts of highly chemically active, metastable compounds of chlorine and oxygen (mixed oxidants: O2, O3, Cl2, O2˙, OH2˙, Cl˙, ClO˙)
Neutral Anolyte can be produced in the pH range 5.5 – 8.5, has a free chlorine level of 500 mg/L and maintains oxidation reduction potential (ORP) levels of 700 – 900 mV for several months in appropriate storage.
Predominant Species in Anolyte:
HOCl ↔ H+ + OCl‾ pKa = 7.5
EFFICACY OF ANOLYTE
- Anolyte as a mixed oxidants are more effective than sodium hypochlorite as demonstrated by test conducted by the Battelle Memorial Institute for the US Military. Sodium hypochlorite, with active chlorine concentration of 5000 mg/L, took 30 minutes to destroy anthrax spores and requiring respiratory protection while Anolyte with active chlorine concentration of 500 mg/L killed the spores on contact and required no respiratory protection
- In killing Bacillus anthracis spores, Anolyte, with comparable free chlorine levels, was over 100 times more effective than sodium hypochlorite.
- Anolyte has significantly greater ability in biocidal activity against bacteria, viruses, protozoa, algae,
fungi and spores than sodium/calcium hypochlorite.
PRODUCTION OF ANOLYTE
- Envirolyte machines are available in various capacity measured in litres per hour. Capacity of machines range from 20 litres per hour to 1200 litres per hour. Machines can be modulated to produce larger volume of Anolyte.
- Anolyte, a potent biocide and Catholyte. Patents derive from research in Russia from 1972. Machines are currently produced in Estonia and are distributed throughout the world throughout the world see distribution map at the bottom of this page.
- Typical reactions are as follows:
machines require mains water, saturated sodium chloride solution and single
phase power. See typical layout for production of anolyte on left top most diagram.
DISINFECTION AND ENDPOINT DETERMINATION
- Besides direct measures of pathogen reduction, free chlorine and ORP (oxidation reduction potential) have proven useful control parameters. Free Active Chlorine (FAC) can be determined by a variety of chemical and physiochemical methods; need to be aware of chemistry, stability, range, interferences, accuracy, precision, etc.
- ORP is the tendency of a chemical species to acquire electrons and thereby be reduced. A solution with a higher (more positive) ORP than the new species will have a tendency to gain electrons from the new species (ie, to be reduced by oxidizing the new species) and a solution with a lower (more negative) ORP will have a tendency to lose electrons to the new species (ie, to be oxidized by reducing the new species). ORP, like pH represents an activity and does not characterize the capacity of the system for oxidation or reduction; in much the same way that pH does not characterize buffering capacity. (See Technical Bulletins 18, 24 and 32 from Aquarius Technologies Pty Ltd (www.aquariustech.com.au.)
The capacity of the required machine is dependent on volume to be treated, contaminant level and desired residual (free chlorine or ORP). Manual and automated models are available; specifications are available on the Envirolyte Industries International Ltd website:
SOME BASIC INFO ON COST
These costs are based on domestic costs for salt, water and electricity. Commercial costs would probably be less and would need to be determined in each situation. For an EL 3000 machine producing 300 L/hour of straight Anolyte may incur the following cost of production:
Electricity 4.3 kWh for 3000 L (@ 11.979 cents / kWh) = 0.017 cents/L
Salt 8 g/L (@ $274 / 1000 kg) = 0.219 cents/L
Water 1 L (@ $0.89 / 1000 L) = 0.089 cents/L
TOTAL 0.325 cents/L or $0.00325/L or $32.50 per 10,000 L. (At 1% dilution, this 10,000 L is sufficient to treat 1 ML of water.)
Courtsey of My Principal, Mr Keith Mason of Envirolyte Asia Pacific.